Sunday, January 30, 2011

Delhi City History of India



Delhi has a rich historical background. Many dynasties had witnessed the glorious bygone era. Since last decades, Delhi has seen rise and fall of many empires, each ruler has left behind a plethora of marvelous architectural wonder. The city had been under the reign of dozens of powerful rulers such as Tomara-Chauhans, Mamluks, Khilji, Tughlaqs, Sayyids, Lodhis, Mughals and lastly, it was ruled by British empire. Delhi had been plundered and rebuilt during the regime of several dynasties.

Early History
Early history dates back to 2500 B.C., during the time of great epic Mahabharata, when Pandava brothers built highly sophisticated fortress called Indraprastha in 2500 B.C., the main administrative centre. Later on, in 19th century, the British demolished the ancient village for the construction of New Delhi.

8th Century to 16th Century
The Rajput Tomars dynasty founded Lal Kot, near the Qutub Minar, at Mehrauli. Lal Kot also referred as Quila Rai Pithora, was built in 1060 A.D. The opulent fort witness to the glorious bygone Tomars era. In 12th century it was captured and enlarged by Rajput King Prithviraj Chauhan. After this great Hindu emperor, the city was under the slave dynasty, headed by Qutub-ud-din-Aibak, which lasted from 1211 to 1227. He established one of the highest minarets of the World - Qutub Minar. After the end of the slave dynasty, the Delhi Sultanate was under Turkic Central Asian and Afghan Dynasties such as the Khilji dynasty, the Tughluq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty and the Lodhi dynasty.

17the Century to 19th Century
In the mid sixteenth century, Delhi was sacked by the Mughal ruler, Sher Shah Suri, after defeating Babur's son Humayan. The construction of magnificent Old Fort, also known as Purana Qila is accredited to him. It is an architectural marvel hosting the rich Mughal culture. Soon after the death of Sher Shah, the empire was once again successively conquered by Humayun. Later, the throne was ascended by his successor Akbar, who shifted the capital to Agra. In the mid seventeenth, Shah Jahan transferred the capital back to Delhi. During his reign, many architectural wonders were erected such as Red Fort and the Jama Masjid. Shah Jahan was dethroned by his Son Aurangzeb and crowned himself as emperor of Delhi in 1658, which lasted till 1707. Marathas took over the empire, after the decline of Mughal rule.

20th Century
Delhi was under the control of British rule after the first war of Independence in 1857. All the territories were annexed by the Britishers, who moved the capital to Calcutta. Later, in 1911 the capital was shifted back to Delhi. The myriad faces of the city in form of government buildings, designed by architect Edwin Lutyens are simply fascinating. Main British buildings include the large Bungalows, the President's House, the Parliament and the Supreme Court. After a hard struggle, India gained Independence on 15th August 1947 and Delhi was declared as the seat of the Government of India. 

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